Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Trichomoniasis

The spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases includes the classic venereal diseases – gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale – as well as a variety of other pathogens known to be spread by sexual contact (Table Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Common clinical syndromes associated with sexually transmitted diseases are listed in Table Selected Syndromes Associated with Common Sexually Transmitted Pathogens.

Gonorrhea. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

All currently recommended regimens are single-dose treatments with various oral or parenteral cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Ceftriaxone (125 mg intramuscularly) is the only parenteral agent recommended by the Centers for Disease Control as a first-line agent for treatment of gonorrhea.

Syphilis: Primary, Secondary, Latent, Tertiary

Primary syphilis is characterized by the appearance of a chancre on cutaneous or mucocutaneous tissue. Chancres persist only for 1 to 8 weeks before spontaneously disappearing.

Chlamydia clinical presentation and diagnosis

Treatment of chlamydial infections with the recommended regimens is highly effective; therefore, posttreatment cultures are not routinely recommended. Infants with pneumonitis should receive follow-up testing, because erythromycin is only 80% effective.

Chancroid. Medical Symptoms and Signs of Chancroid

A sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful genital ulcerations and inflammatory inguinal adenopathy. It is uncommon in the United States but found worldwide. Chancroid is endemic in developing countries and a cofactor for HIV transmission.

Chlamydial sexually transmitted diseases

An obligate intracellular membrane-bound prokaryotic organism, chlamydia trachomatis causes an estimated 3 million new sexually transmitted infections in the US each year. The estimated cost of chlamydia STDs in 1994 was $2 billion per year in the U. S., largely due to costly complications such as PID, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Studies indicate that 75-90% of women and 50-90% of men with chlamydial STD are asymptomatic.