Tags: Abelcet

Antifungal Agents

Fungi are eukaryotes, and they share many of the structural and metabolic characteristics of human cells. As a result, designing agents that affect fungi without harming human cells has proved difficult. One major difference between the two cell types is the primary sterol building block used to form the plasma membrane. The fungal plasma membrane consists of ergosterols; the major sterol component of the human plasma membrane is cholesterol.

Fungal Infections, Invasive

Systemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis, are caused by primary or “pathogenic”¬†fungi that can cause disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. In contrast, mycoses caused by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., Trichosporon, Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor are generally found only in the immunocompromised host.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.

Antifungal Drugs

A number of systemic fungal infections (e.g., histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis) can also afflict otherwise healthy persons. Until recently, only amphotericin B was available to treat systemic fungal infection. However, with the rapid development and clinical assessment of azole compounds, a number of these agents are also considered appropriate for treatment of fungal infections.

Amphotericin B (Fungilin, Fungizone, Abelcet, Fungisome, Amphocil)

Systematic drug interaction studies have not been performed to date using amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex, amphotericin B lipid complex, or amphotericin B liposomal. The fact that drug interactions reported with conventional IV amphotericin B could also occur with these lipid-based or liposomal formulations of the drug should be considered.

Amphotericin B: Dosage and Administration

Conventional amphotericin B is administered by IV infusion. The drug also has been given intra-articularly, intrapleurally, intrathecally, or by local instillation or irrigation. For information regarding administration of the drug as an oral suspension and administration of the drug topically, subconjunctivally, or by local instillation or irrigation.

Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is active against Absidia spp., Aspergillus spp., Basidiobolus spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida spp., Coccidioides immitis, Conidiobolus spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp., and Sporothrix schenckii.