Tags: Anthrax

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia (also called rabbit fever or deerfly fever), an infectious disease that occurs primarily in animals. It may occasionally cause human disease, which most often manifests itself by one or more skin lesions, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and constitutional symptoms.

Gram-Positive Aerobic Bacilli

L monocytogenes is found in soil, fertilizer, sewage, and stream water; on plants; and in the intestinal tracts of many mammals. It is a foodborne pathogen that causes bacteremic illness and meningoencephalitis, with few if any gastrointestinal manifestations.

Other Bacillus Species

Bacillus species other than B anthracis are found in soil, decaying organic matter, and water, but they are rare causes of disease. Risk factors associated with Bacillus infection include the presence of intravascular catheters, intravenous drug use, sickle cell disease, and immunosuppression — particularly corticosteroid use, transplantation, AIDS, and neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy.

Anthrax

Historically, anthrax has been an occupational disease of persons who handle animal hair, skin, and other contaminated products. The incidence of this disease in the United States has fallen dramatically; only six cases of anthrax were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1978 through 1998. The cutaneous form of the disease is most common.

Poxviruses

Poxviruses are a large, complex family of viruses that cause disease in humans and other animals (Table 1). Of the many genera in this family, only species of Orthopoxvirus and Molluscipoxvirus are associated specifically with humans.

Ciprofloxacin 250mg, 500mg, 750mg Tablets [Cipro, Ciproxin]

Ciprofloxacin belongs to a group of medicines known as the quinolone antibacterials, fluoroquinolones. It has high anti-bacterial activity against a wide range of organisms. Contact your doctor immediately, if any of the following occurs while taking Ciprofloxacin.

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Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax has been recommended for people potentially exposed to Bacillus anthracis as a result of recent bioterrorist attacks. Of 3428 people taking ciprofloxacin, 666 (19%) reported severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain; 484 (14%) reported fainting, light-headedness, or dizziness; 250 (7%) reported heartburn or acid reflux; and 216 (6%) reported rashes, hives, or an itchy skin. Of those taking ciprofloxacin, 287 (8%) stopped taking it, 116 (3%) because of adverse events, 27 (1%) because of fear of possible adverse events, and 28 (1%) because they “did not think it was needed”. The imaging of inflammation/infection withTm-labeled ciprofloxacin in 96 patients had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 87%.

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Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax has been recommended for people potentially exposed to Bacillus anthracis as a result of recent bioterrorist attacks. Of 3428 people taking ciprofloxacin, 666 (19%) reported severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain; 484 (14%) reported fainting, light-headedness, or dizziness; 250 (7%) reported heartburn or acid reflux; and 216 (6%) reported rashes, hives, or an itchy skin.

Central Nervous System Infections

Central nervous system infections include a wide variety of clinical conditions and etiologies: meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, brain and meningeal abscesses, and shunt infections. The focus of this chapter is meningitis. N. meningitidis meningitis is the leading cuase of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults in the United States.

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Amantadine hydrochloride is used for symptomatic treatment and for prophylaxis of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various human and animal or avian strains of influenza A virus. While chemoprophylaxis with the drug should not be considered a substitute for annual vaccination with influenza virus vaccine, antiviral agents are critical adjuncts to influenza vaccine for the control and prevention of influenza.