Tags: Fortaz

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often requiring the expertise of an infectious disease specialist to design the optimal anti-infective regimen. The general internist or physician-in-training should not attempt to memorize all the facts outlined here, but rather should read the pages that follow as an overview of anti-infectives. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, major toxicities, spectrum of activity, treatment indications, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, and cost are reviewed.

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials.


Like other parenteral third generation cephalosporins (cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone), ceftazidime is less active than first and second generation cephalosporins against some gram-positive bacteria (e.g., staphylococci) and generally should not be used in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms when a penicillin or first or second generation cephalosporin could be used.