Tags: Telithromycin

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants.

Penicillins

The penicillins comprise several subgroups of agents with a wide range of bacterial coverage and efficacy. Each penicillin molecule contains a basic β-lactam structure fused to a five-membered ring. Because of their broad spectrum of activity and availability in oral form, the penicillins are commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and have become the drugs of choice in treating many common infections.

Ketolides – New Class of Macrolide Derivatives

Ketolides are a new class of macrolide derivatives designed specifically to combat macrolide-resistant respiratory tract pathogens. The ketolides exhibit good activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative organisms and have excellent activity against drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, including macrolide-resistant strains. Spontaneous resistance to the available ketolide, telithromycin, is rare. Ketolides display excellent pharmacokinetics that allow once-daily dose administration and extensive tissue distribution relative to serum.

Ketolides

Ketolides are a new class of macrolide derivatives designed specifically to combat macro fide-resistant respiratory tract pathogens. The ketolides are semisynthetic derivatives of the macrolide erythromycin A, with a keto group replacing the 1-cladinose group at position 3 of the macrolactone ring. The ketolides exhibit good activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative organisms, and have excellent activity against drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, including macrolide-resistant strains.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: Current therapies

TABLE: Pharmacological Management of Underlying Disease During an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the general pharmacological agents and classes used to manage acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The primary therapies used in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis treat the causative infection (antibiotics), relieve symptoms (bronchodilators), and treat the underlying inflammation (corticosteroids). TABLE: Current Therapies Used for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the leading antibiotic therapies used to treat the infection.

Celsentry (Maraviroc)

Celsentri is an antiretroviral medicine used in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Its active ingredient, maraviroc, belongs to a group of medicines called CCR5 antagonists. Celsentri prevents the entry of HIV-1 into the cells in your blood that are attacked by HIV (called CD4 or T-cells). Celsentri works by blocking a receptor called CCR5 that HIV use to gain entry into these cells.

Pneumonia, bacterial

An acute, bacterial infection of the lung parenchyma. Infection may be community-acquired or nosocomial (hospital acquired by an inpatient for at least 48 hours or inpatient in the previous 90 days). Most commonly, community-acquired disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is usually due to gram negative rods (60%, such as Pseudomonas) or Staphylococcus (30%).

Telithromycin

Diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and flatulence are among the most common adverse reactions after use of telithromycin. Severe, but usually reversible, hepatic dysfunction, including elevation of liver enzymes and hepatitis, with or without jaundice has been reported; however, there have been cases of fatal hepatotoxicity including fulminant hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure.

Case: Antibacterial agents. Class

Partial listing of penicillins. Selected listing of cephalosporins. Partial listing of antimicrobial agents.