Tags: Tinea

Dermatophytes

Dermatophytes are molds that infect keratinized tissues including skin, hair, and nails. Whereas 40 dermatophyte species are known to infect humans, only about 15 of these are common causes of disease. These organisms belong to three genera, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton. Because these fungi have such similar infectivity, morphology, and pathogenicity, they are often categorized according to the clinical syndrome and the preferred anatomic site with which they are associated, such as tinea capitis, tinea pedis, etc.

Borrelia & Leptospira Species

The syndrome of relapsing fever consists of two clinical entities: epidemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis (LBRF) and transmitted by the human body louse and endemic relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spp. (TBRF) and transmitted by arthropods (Table 1). A. Epidemiology. 1. Louse-borne epidemic relapsing fever (LBRF).

Secondary Syphilis

The secondary stage of syphilis occasionally overlaps with the primary phase but usually begins ~ 6 weeks after resolution of the chancre; however, it can develop as late as 6 months after infection (see Box  1). Most patients have some degree of skin or mucocutaneous involvement. A faint and evanescent macular rash of the trunk and abdomen known as roseola syphilitica is sometimes seen initially.

Skin & Soft Tissue Infections

Infections caused by P aeruginosa involving the skin may be primary or secondary. Secondary infections have been described above and include ecthyma gangrenosum, subcutaneous nodules, vesicles, bullae, cellulitis, deep abscesses, and necrotizing fasciitis. Primary skin lesions are noted as complications of neutropenia, burns, decubitus ulcers, prematurity, exposure to a moist environment, and hydrotherapy. Burn wound sepsis is a serious complication that may be caused by P aeruginosa.

Nonpyogenic Skin Infections

Impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) are primarily childhood diseases. More than 70% of cases of impetigo are caused by S aureus, with the remainder attributed to pyogenic streptococci or mixed infection. Impetigo begins as a scarlatiniform eruption in a previously traumatized area that blisters then ruptures to form a wet, honey-colored crust. Common sites for infection are the face and trunk.

Use and Administration of Itraconazole 100 mg (Sporanox)

Itraconazole can be used to treat various superficial fungal infections, including the dermatophytoses, pityriasis versicolor, and mucosal and cutaneous forms of candidosis. It is also effective in patients with subcutaneous infections, such as chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis and certain forms of phaeohyphomycosis.

Management of Tinea Unguium (Amorolfine, Tioconazole, Itraconazole, Griseofulvin)

Fungal infection of the nails (onychomycosis) may be caused by a number of dermatophytes as well as by a number of other moulds and Candida species. There is wide geographical and racial variation in the causative agents, but in the UK 85-90% of nail infections are due to dermatophytes and about 5% are due to non-dermatophyte moulds.

Management of Tinea Manuum (Terbinafine, Itraconazole)

The anthropophilic dermatophytes E. floccosum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitate and T. rubrutn are the most common causes of tinea manuum. Less commonly, the condition is caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, such as M. canis and T. verrucosum, or geophilic dermatophytes, such as M. gypseum. Hand infection may be acquired as a result of contact with another person, with an animal, or with soil, either through direct contact, or via a contaminated object such as a towel or gardening tool. Autoinoculation from another site of infection can also occur.

Management of Tinea Pedis (Terbinafine, Itraconazole)

The term tinea pedis is used to refer to dermatophyte infections of the feet. These infections often involve the interdigital spaces, but chronic diffuse desquamation can affect the entire sole. The anthropophilic dermatophytes E. floccosum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. rubrutn are the commonest causes of tinea pedis in the UK and North America.